Abortion refers to a method of ending a pregnant so that the child will not be born. The abortion pill is taken by women or they undergo surgical ablation to remove emyo, the fetus or the placenta. Unwanted pregnancies or unplanned ones can force women to make the decision that abortion is their best choice. The American Life League estimates that 2,899 women have abortions every day. Sociological theories like functionalism, conflict theorem, and symbol interaction can explain abortion social behavior.
In the first place, manifest functions are macro-level elements of behavior that have been deliberately and consciously designed to produce a beneficial outcome in society. Abortion affects individuals as well as society. In the modern society, abortion is viewed from two different perspectives: pro-choice or pro-life. Pro-choice people believe that women are entitled to make their own decisions about when they want to have a child. They think abortion is beneficial for society because it prevents unwanted children from serving in stable institutions. The pro-life movement believes that the government is responsible for preserving all human lives and recognizing the importance of procreation. The issue of abortion is complex in the society. It is looked at from both a religious and moral perspective. According to the religions, their higher authority is against abortions since it means taking another’s life. Latent functions can also be unintended and unrecognized consequences of manifest functions. Abortion is a latently positive practice in America because it is readily available and legal. Roe V. Wade provides protection to women who want an abortion and don’t want to be punished. Also, it protects those with serious illnesses. When women seek an abortion at a clinic that is not professional, they are less likely to suffer complications. Abortions reduce the number of births, and therefore, eliminate the possibility to grow society. Abortion and cancer are linked, putting both mother and child at risk. Government aid would have a negative impact on the society and increase debt. Dysfunctions cause chaos and conflict in the society, which undermines social stability. Children who have parents under the age of 18 are more likely to become pregnant at an early age. The vicious cycle continues. Children raised by absentee or neglected parents may seek out affection from other sources, and often end up in the wrong crowd. The guilt can also cause women to develop depression and regret. Such behavior can prevent an individual from being able to contribute to the stability of society.
The conflict theory is a macro perspective that views the society as a competition that never ends for finite natural resources. It generates social conflict and change. Abortion is a result of capitalism. When women have low-paying jobs, they feel the need for an abortion. Instability in their finances means they cannot support their children. Women who do not terminate pregnancy but are in poverty will also seek assistance. The Federal government deducts money from taxpayers’ paychecks to pay for welfare programs. Some American taxpayers are against government aid to others as it leads only to dependency. Many people focus on abortion and the decision of the women, but forget the father’s perspective. Although he may not be physically responsible for the child, a male partner is still able to express his fatherly feelings. To free women from male dominance they are given full authority over the reproductive system. Women are deemed to be the best judges of when abortions are necessary, as carrying a child can affect a woman’s future and her goals in terms of education, career and lifestyle.
The structural inequality in abortions rates for women is examined by the critical race theory. According to Right to Life of Michigan (Right to Life), black women experience a higher rate of abortion than whites. Due to the history of race in America, reproductive health issues and opportunities are often magnified for black communities. Black women lack insurance coverage for birth-control, making it difficult to afford. Black women without access to birth-control are at risk of unwanted pregnancies which may lead to abortions. White women are often excused from the same injustices that black women face. The Week reported on 53% of women who were white voting Republican in 2016. They are notorious for voting for conservatives and ignoring human rights violations. They are the women who believe that women shouldn’t have abortions, yet they are also the least affected by abortion. According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, women aged between 20 and 29 are 59% more likely to have an abortion. They believe that their health as a woman would be affected if they had a baby. These women are in the process of finishing their education and beginning their careers. This is not the time to introduce an unwanted child. Some have suggested that the number of women who delay motherhood is increasing. They had access to pre-natal care, but they now have a reduced chance of conception. Miscarriage, preeclampsia & complicated pregnancy can result in forceps & caesarean sections for older women. Abortion has a profound and personal impact on the LGBT community. National Center for Lesbian Rights stated that research indicated lesbian youth are twice as likely to get pregnant unintentionally than heterosexuals. Lesbians, bisexuals and other women of a lesbian or bisexual orientation are more likely to be sexually assaulted. In heterosexual relationships, an unintentional pregnancy can occur. This often results in the father abandoning the woman. Men often feel denial, anger and fear when confronted with an accidental pregnancy. In these tragic circumstances, many men support abortion.
The last theory is symbolic interaction, which explains social behavior by analyzing how people communicate with one another through symbols. Roe V. Wade, coathanger, red gown, poster of an uterus Savita Halappanavar “Never Again” posters, crosses, abortion opposition hold a quiet protest, abortion pill and stethoscope are all symbols for abortion. One way to define the process is by educating other people on why women should have or not have abortions. The conversation should take place in a neutral, calm environment. Media coverage of abortion debates can often and frequently stir up controversy. This tactic has the potential to change public opinion about abortion. Face-to face interaction can also include creating laws against abortion. Alabama’s governor signed the nation’s most anti-abortion legislation on May 15, 2018. The law makes it a crime to perform an abortion, which angers pro-choice activists. People protested the ban on abortion from Georgia to Alaska. People gather in large crowds to share their opinions on abortion.
In conclusion, the abortion issue in America will continue to be an important topic of discussion. Sociological theories like functionalism, conflict theorem, and symbol interaction can explain abortion’s social behavior.